Introduction to the french perfect participle

     

The French perfect participle or past gerund is used to describe either a condition existing in the past or an kích hoạt that took place right before another action. It is equivalent to lớn "having + past participle" in English, but as this construction can be somewhat awkward, it"s often reworded. The perfect participle is similar khổng lồ the construction après + past infinitive:Ayant fait mes devoirs, j"ai regardé la télé. (Après avoir fait mes devoirs...)Having finished my homework, I watched TV. / Since I had finished my homework.... / After finishing my homework....

Bạn đang xem: Introduction to the french perfect participle

Étant partie très tôt, elle a dû conduire seule. (Après être partie très tôt...)Having left very early, she had to drive alone. / Because she left very early....However, unlike the past infinitive, the perfect participle can have a different subject than the main clause:Ses enfants ayant grandi, Chantal est rentrée à l"école.Her kids grown, Chantal went back khổng lồ school. / Her kids having grown...Mon père étant parti, j"ai pleuré.My father gone, I cried. / My father having left...


Word Order

As with the other compound tenses, object & adverbial pronouns precede the auxiliary verb of the perfect participle:T"ayant vu, j"ai souri.Having seen you, I smiled.Lui ayant donné le livre, je suis parti.Having given him the book, I left. / After I gave him the book...And negative adverbs surround auxiliary verbs:N"ayant pas étudié, elle a raté l"examen.Not having studied, she failed the test. / Since she didn"t study...Ne t"ayant pas vu, j"ai demandé à Pierre.

Xem thêm: Hạt Gạo Phải Một Nắng Hai Sương, Tổng Hợp Phân Tích 9 Câu Thơ Đầu Bài Thơ Đất Nước

Not having seen you, I asked Pierre. / Since I didn"t see you...


Note:Like all French compound conjugations, the perfect participle may be subject to lớn grammaticalagreement:


When the auxiliary verb is être, the past participle must agree with the subjectWhen the auxiliary verb is avoir, the past participle may have to lớn agree with its direct object
parlerchoisirvendre
ayant parléayant choisiayant vendu
allersortirdescendre
étant allé(e)(s)étant sorti(e)(s)étant descendu(e)(s)
se taires"évanouirse souvenir
s'étant tu(e)(s)s'étant évanoui(e)(s)s'étant souvenu(e)(s)

Since the auxiliary verb is in animpersonal mood, theperfect participleis the same conjugation for allsubjects.


Étant sortis, nous...Having gone out, we...
N'ayant pas vu Anne, je l'ai appelée.Not having seen Anne, I called her.

M'étant habillé, je...Having gotten dressed, I...
Vous étant levés, vous...

Xem thêm: Cho Mìk Hỏi Vegetable Là Danh Từ Đếm Được Hay Không Đếm Được Hay Không Đếm Được

Having gotten up, you...